He obtained a medical doctor degree from the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In 1983, he earned a PhD in Health Care Epidemiology from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He has conducted extensive research in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and other Brazilian states and has worked as a researcher and consultant for more than 40 countries. He has been an advisor to the World Health Organization and UNICEF.
His areas of research include maternal and child health and nutrition, breastfeeding, birth cohorts, social inequalities, and evaluation of health services, with more than 700 publications. C. Victora holds a position of level 1-A researcher of the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). He has honorary appointments at the Universities of Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Oxford and London, and sits on the Editorial Board of several journals. He was president of the International Epidemiological Association (2011-2014). In 2017 he was honored with Canada Gairdner Global Health Award, being the first Brazilian researcher among the winners.